• Gabriela IRIMESCU PhD Associated Lecturer, Department of Sociology and Social Work, Faculty of Philosophy and Social-Political Sciences, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi, Carol I 11, 700506, Iaşi, Romania


bullying type behavior, aggression, risk factors, protective factors.


Recently introduced in our specialty literature, bullying behavior is analyzed and studied in relation to other terms of the violence area. Given the institutional type of manifesting: schools, day care centers, educational centers, workplace, etc. but the magnifying glass under which it was viewed and analyzed in this article was that ecosystem perspective. So the focus felt on understanding the phenomenon of atomic perspective and in terms of understanding the more general models. The atomic model is restricted to certain risk factors related to the victim (e.g., age, gender, disability, type of temperament, etc.), aggressor (low empathy, low self-esteem, aggressive pattern, etc.) or observer (low self-esteem, empathy, low overloading the role and status, mentality, education level, etc.) and the relationship among these factors, while more general theoretical models approach the complex risk factors involved in relational factors (control difficulties, difficulties in the exercise of power, pathological triangulation, etc.), social those (poverty, social isolation, lack of enforcement, social stress, etc.), cultural ones (belonging to a religion, an ethnic group, negative publicity, cultural acceptance of violence etc.). The two types of explanatory models are not mutually exclusive, but complement each other in contributing to understanding the phenomenon. Remembering risk factors without mentioning and protective factors too is to forget the other side of the coin. In the absence of risk factors, protective factors have no impact. Intensity of a factor, as the interaction with other factors can cause, in some cases, the quality of risk or protective.


Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică “Iorgu Iordan” (1998). Dicţionar Expli­cativ al Limbii Române (DEX), ediţia a II-a. Editura Univers Enciclopedic, Bucureşti.

Beldean-Galea, I.E and Jurcău, N. (2010). Studiul calităţilor psihometrice ale unui chestionar de evaluare a fenomenului “bullying” la elevi.Romanian Journal of Applied Psychology, 12(1), 15-20

Chirilă, T. (2013). Eficiența mecanismelor de coping în cazul bullying-ului la locul de muncă. PhD Thesis, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences.

Curelaru, M., Iacob, I. and Abălașei, B. (2009). School bullying: definition, characteristics, and intervention strategies. Revista de Cercetare și Intervenție Socială, 26, 7-29.

Elamé, E. (2013). Discriminatory Bullying. A new Intercultural Challenge. Springer-Verlang, Italy.

Filipeanu (Șandru), I. (2012). Fenomenul “bullying” la adolescenți. Abstract of PhD thesis, University of Bucharest, Faculty of Psychology.

Hooper, M. L., L'Abate, L., Sweeney, L.G., Gianesini, G. and Jankowski, P.J. (2014). Models of Psychopathology. Generational Processes and Relational Roles, Springer, Italy.


Huluba-Grigore, A.N. (2014). Forme actuale de violență în contextual educational – o analiză multinivelară. PhD Thesis, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences.

Ionescu, Ş. (1999). Intervenţia în Situaţii de Abuz şi Neglijare a Copilului, lecture in the International Seminar Abused Child, West University of Timisoara.

Ionescu, Ş. (coord.), (2001). Copilul maltratat, Evaluare, prevenire şi intervenţie, Editura Fundaţia Internaţională pentru Copil şi Familie, Bucureşti.

Ionescu, Ş., Jacquet, M.M. and Lhote, C. (2003). Mecanismele de apărare. Teorie şi aspecte clinice, Editura Polirom, Iaşi.

Irimescu, G. (2002). Abuzul asupra copilului. Forme de intervenţie socială. In Miftode, V. (Ed.). Populaţii vulnerabile şi fenomene de auto-marginalizare. Strategii de inter­venţie şi efecte perverse, Editura Lumen, Iași.

Irimescu, G. (2006). Protecţia socială a copilului abuzat. Editura Universităţii “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” din Iaşi.

LAROUSSE (2006). Marele dicţionar al Psihologiei, Editura Trei, Bucureşti.

Lazăr, T. (2012). What comes after bullying?. Today’s Children, Tomorrow’s Parents, 33-34.

Legea 272/ 2004, privind protecţia şi promovarea drepturilor copilului, republicată în 2014 în Monitorul Oficial, Partea I nr. 159 din 5 martie 2014.

O´Moore, M. and Seigne, E. and McGuire, L. and Smith, M. (1998). Victims of workplace bullying in Ireland, Irish Journal of Psychology, 19, 345-357.

Oliver, R. and Neal, O.I. (1994). Family issues and interventions in bully and victim relationships. School Counselor, 41(3), 199-202.

Olweus, D. (1996). The Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. Mimeo, Bergen, Norway: Research Center for Health Promotion, University of Bergen.

Pepler, D.J., Craig, W.M., Connolly, J.A., Yuile, A., McMaster, L. and Jiang, D. (2006). A developmental perspective on bullying. Aggressive Behavior, 32, 376-384.

Petrică, I. (2014). Strategii validate științific de reducere a fenomenului de bullying în școală. Organizația Salvați Copiii.

Renda, J., Vassallo, S. and Edwards, B. (2011). Bullying in early adolescence and its associationwith anti-social behavior, criminalityand violence 6 and 10 years later. CriminalBehavior and Mental Health, 21, 117-127.

Salmivalli, C., Lagerspetz, K., Björkqvist, K., Österman K. and Kaukiainen, A. (1996). Bullying as a Group Process: Participant Roles and Their Relations to Social Status Within the Group. Aggressive Behavior, 22(1), 1-15.

Smith, P.K., Cowie H., Olfsson R.F. and Liefooghe, P.D. (2002). Definition of bullying: A comparison of terms used, and age and gender differences, in a fourteen-country international comparison. Child Development, 73(4), 1119-1133.

Smith, P.K. and Sharp, S. (2002). School bullying. Insights and perspectives. Routlege, London, N.Y.

Tomița, M. (ed.) (2013). Diagnoza fenomenului de bullying la nivelul școlilor din județul Timiș. Editura ProUniversitaria, București.

Van der Wal, M.F. and de Wit, C.A.M. and Remy, A. (2003). Harassing, psychosocial health among young victims and offenders of direct and indirect bullying. Pediatrics, 111(6), 1312-1317.

Wesley, Mission (2009). The Wesley Report, Give kids a chance:No-one deserves tobe left aut, [online] https://www.wesleymission.org.au/home/our-words/the-wesley-report/give-kids-a-chance-no-one-deserves-to-be-left-out/

Additional Files