ADAPTATION STRATEGIES OF THE ELDERLY MIGRANTS IN DESTINATION COUNTRIES – A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

Adrian Lucian Lupu

Abstract


Romania faced four main emigration waves so far, and most Romanian immigrants went to western European countries (Ulrich et al., 2011). The phenomenon deeply affects the Romanian society and generates unbalances in the demographic structure and on the labor market, implicitly, (Sandu, 2005, 2006, 2009; Bodvarsson, and Van Den Berg, 2009). For instance, there are localities especially in rural areas where over 50% of the population migrated and formed compact groups in various sites in destination countries. This has several negative effects: ageing of population (Black and Sward, 2009), the decrease in active work force, family structure dysfunctions, increased dependency on social services, etc (Bolzman et al., 2006). The objectives of the study are as follows: 1. Identifying migration models and patterns specific to persons over 60; and 2. Identifying the adaptation strategies used in the countries of arrival and the resources mobilized within the adaptation process. The method used in this study is based on a grounded-theory type of approach (Strauss and Corbin, 1990; Creswell, 2007) and it involved the application of interviews to persons over 60 who went through a migration experience.

Résumé


La Roumanie s’est confrontée avec quatre vagues de migration jusqu’à présent, et la majorité des immigrants roumains ont choisi les pays de l’ouest de l’Europe (Ulrich et al., 2011). Le phénomène a affecté considérablement la société roumaine et il a généré des déséquilibres dans la structure démographique et sur le marché du travail, implicitement (Sandu, 2005, 2006, 2009; Bodvarsson et Van Den Berg, 2009). Par exemple, il y a des localités, surtout dans les zones rurales, où plus de 50% de la population a migré et a formé des groupes compacts dans de différentes localités des pays d’arrivée. Cela a produit plusieurs effets négatifs: le vieillissement de la population (Black et Sward, 2009), la baisse de la force de travail active, des dysfonctions dans la structure familiale, dépendance élevée des services sociaux, etc. (Bolzman et al., 2006). Les objectifs de l’étude sont les suivants : 1. Identifier les modèles et les patterns spécifiques aux personnes âgées plus de 60 ans; and 2. Identifier les stratégies d’adaptation utilisées dans les pays d’arrivée et les ressources mobilisées pendant le processus d’adaptation. La méthode utilisée dans cette étude est base sur une approche de type théorique reposant sur les faits (Strauss et Corbin, 1990; Creswell, 2007) et elle a inclu l’application des interviews à des personnes âgées plus de 60 ans qui ont passées par une expérience de migration.

Rezumat


Până în prezent, România s-a confruntat cu aproximativ 4 valuri principale de emigraţie, iar cei mai mulţi dintre cetăţenii români s-au stabilit în ţările din Europa de vest (Ulrich et al., 2011). Fenomenul afectează profund societate românească, producând dezechilibre în structura demografică şi, implicit, pe piaţa muncii (Sandu, 2005, 2006, 2009; Bodvarsson, and Van Den Berg, 2009). De exemplu, există, în special în mediul rural, localităţi din care au emigrat peste 50% din populaţie, formând grupuri compacte stabilite în diverse localităţi din ţările de primire. Acest fapt a produs câteva efecte negative: îmbătrânirea populaţiei (Black and Sward, 2009), scăderea participării la forţa de muncă, disfuncţii la nivelul structurii familiale, creşterea dependenţei faţă de serviciile sociale, etc (Bolzman et al., 2006). Obiectivele acestui studiu sunt: 1. Identificarea modelelor şi paternurilor de migraţie specifice persoanelor cu vârsta de peste 60 de ani; şi 2. Identificarea strategiilor de adaptare în ţările de primire şi a resurselor mobilizate în procesul de adaptare. Metoda utilizată în acest studiu rezultă dintr-o abordare de tipul grounded-theory (Strauss and Corbin, 1990; Creswell, 2007) şi a presupus aplicarea unor interviuri persoanelor cu vârsta de peste 60 de ani care au avut o experienţă de migraţie.

Keywords


adaptation strategies; elderly migrants; social life; social services; migration patterns

Mots-clés


stratégies d’adaptation; migrants âgés; vie social; services sociaux; schémas de migration

Cuvinte cheie


strategii de adaptare; migranti vârstnici; viaţă socială; servicii sociale; paternuri de migraţie

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