RISK AND RESILIENCE IN CHILDREN OF PRISONERS: A RESEARCH REVIEW
Keywords:Children of prisoners, resilience, family resilience, community resilience.
AbstractThis paper reviews theory and evidence on the risk for child mental health and well-being following parental imprisonment in Europe, America, and Australasia, and examines some cross-country differences in outcomes. In an attempt to explain these cross-country differences a particular focus on strengths based approaches is provided in discussing how a number of risk factors might explain mental health problems following parental imprisonment. In doing so, the authors seek to integrate findings from both deficit perspectives and the resilience research literature and point the way to a more profitable research agenda. The implications of resiliency processes in understanding positive adaptation for children of prisoners are then discussed. The paper argues the pivotal role that family resilience and community resilience (especially school social support) plays in building the capacity for resilience, and the consequent need to broaden the research agenda by investigating resilience at the individual, relational and community level.
Ainsworth, M.D.S., Blehar, M.C., Waters, E.and Wall, S. 1978.Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation.Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ.
Alaimo, K., Olson, C.M. and Frongillo, E.A.(2001.Food insufficiency and American school-aged children’s cognitive, academic and psychosocial development. Pediatrics,108, 44-53.
Anderson, N.N. 1966. Prisoners’ families: A study of family crisis. Unpublished doctoral thesis.
Ayre, L., Philbrick, K. and Reiss, M. 2006.Children of Imprisoned Parents: European Perspectives on Good Practice. EUROCHIPS, Paris.
Bifulco, A.T., Brown, G.W.and Harris, T.O. 1987. Childhood loss of parent, lack of adequate parental care and adult depression: A replication. The Journal of Affective Disorders,12, 115-128.
Bickart, T.S. and Wolin, S. 1997.Practicing Resilience in the Elementary Classroom. Principal Magazine.http://www.projectresilience.com/article17.htm
Boswell, G. (2002)‘Imprisoned fathers: The children's view.Howard Journal, 41 (1), 14-26.
Boswell, G.and Wedge, P. 2002.Imprisoned fathers and their children. Jessica Kingsley, London.
Bowlby, J. (1980)Attachment and Loss (vol. 3), Loss: Sadness and Depression.Basic Books, Penguin Books, New York.
Bowes, L., Maughan, B., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E.and Arseneault, L. 2010.Families promote emotional and behavioural resilience to bullying: Evidence of an environmental effect.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,51 (7), 809-817.
Brackenreed, D. 2010. Resilience and Risk. International Education Studies, 3 (3),111-121.
Braman, D. 2004.Doing Time on the Outside: Incarceration and Family Life in Urban America.University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.
Bretherton, I. 1997.Bowlby’s legacy to developmental psychology.Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 28, 33-43.
Bretherton, I. and Munholland, K.A. 2008.Internal working models in attachment relationships: Elaborating a central construct in attachment theory.In Cassidy, J. and Shaver, P. (eds), Handbook of Attachment: Theory, research and clinical application (2nded.). Guilford, New York.
Brooks, J. 2006.Strengthening resilience in children and youths:Maximizing opportunities through the schools.Children and Schools, 28 (2), 69-76.
Cauce, A.M., Stewart, A., Rodriguez, M D., Cochran, B.and Ginzler, J. 2003.Overcoming the odds? Adolescent development in the context of urban poverty. In Luthar, S.S. (ed.), Resilience and vulnerability. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 343-363.
Chatty, D. And Lewando Hunt, G. 2001.Lessons Learned Report: Children and Adolescents in Palestinian Households: Living with the Effects of Prolonged Conflict and Forced Migration.Refugee Studies Centre, Oxford.
Condry, R. 2007.Families shamed: The consequences of crime for relatives of serious offenders.Willan Publishing, Collumpton, UK.
Clopton, K.I. and East, K.K. 2008.‘Are there other kids like me?’children with parent in prison.Early Childhood Education Journal,36, 195-198.
Crawford, J. 2003.Alternative Sentencing Necessary for Female Inmates With Children.Corrections Today, June 2003, np.
Cunningham, A. 2001.Forgotten families - the impacts of imprisonment.Family Matters, 59, Winter, 35-38.
Dallaire, H.D., Ciccone, A. and Wilson, L.C. 2010.Teachers' experiences with and expectations of children with incarcerated parents.Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology,31, 281-290.
Davis, C., Martin, G., Kosky, R. and O'Hanlon, A. 2000.Early Intervention in the Mental Health of Young People: A Literature Review.The Australian Early Intervention Network for Mental Health in Young People, Canberra.
DeFina, R.H. and Hannon, L. 2010.The Impact of Adult Incarceration on Child Poverty: A County-Level Analysis, 1995-2007.The Prison Journal,90 (4), 377-396.
Drummond, J.and Marcellus, L. 2003.Editorial: Resilience: An opportunity for nursing.Journal of Neonatal, Pediatric, and Child Health Nursing,6 (3), 2-4.
Elbedour, S., Bensel. R.T.andBastien, D.T. 1993.Ecological integrated mode1 of children of war:Individual and social psychology.Child Abuse and Neglect, 17, 805-8 19.
Eriksson, I., Cater, A., Andershed, A.K.andAndershed, H.(2010). What we know and need to know about factors that protect youth from problems: A review of previous reviews.Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 477-482.
Eurochips 2006Children of imprisoned parents: European perspectives on good practice.Ayre, L.P. and Reiss, K.M. (eds), Eurochips, Paris.
Farrington, D.P. and Welsh, C.W. 2006.A Half century of Randomized Experiments on Crime and Justice. Crime and Justice,34, 55-132.
Feldman, R., Stiffman, A.and Jung , K. 1987.Children at Risk: In the Web of Parental Mental Illness.Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ.
Fishman, L.T. 1990.Women at the wall: A study of prisoners’ wives doing time on the outside. SUNY Press, Albany, NY.
Fonagy, P., Target, M., Steele, M., Steele, H., Leigh, T., Levinson, A. and Kennedy, R. 1997.Morality, Disruptive Behaviour, Borderline Personality Disorder, Crime, and Their Relationships to Security of Attachment. In Atkinson, L. and Zucker, K.Z. (eds), Attachment and Psychopathology.Guilford Press, New York, 223-274.
Garbarino, J., Kostelny, K.and Dubrow, N.1991.No place to be a child: Growing up in a war zone.Lexington Books, Lexington MA.
Garmezy, N., Masten, A.S.andTellegen, A. 1984.The study of stress and competence in children: A building block for developmental psychopathology.Child Development, 55, 97-11.
Garmezy, N. and Rutter, M. 1983.Stress, coping, and development in children.McGraw-Hill, New York.
Gilligan, R. 2002.Promoting resilience in children and young people: Developing Practice.The Child, Youth and Family Work Journal,5, 29-35.
Glaze, L.E. and Maruschak, L.M. 2010.Parents in Prison and Their Minor Children.Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report. U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs.
Glover, J. 2009.Every night you cry: the realities of having a parent in prison.Barnardo’s, Essex.
Graham-Bermann, S.A., Gruber, G., Howell, K.H.andGirzb, L. 2009.Factors discriminating among profiles of resilience and psychopathology in children exposed to intimate partner violence.Child Abuse and Neglect, 33, 648-660.
Hagan, J.andDinovitzer, R. 1999Collateral consequences of imprisonment for children, communities and prisoners. In Tonry, M. and Petersilia, J. (eds),Crime and Justice: An Annual Review of Research, Vol. 7. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 121-162.
Hagen, K.A., Myers, B.J. and Mackintosh, V.H. (2005).Hope, Social Support, and Behavioral Problems in At-Risk Children.American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 75, (2) 211-219.
Hanewald, R. 2011.Reviewing the Literature on “At-Risk” and Resilient Children and Young People.Australian Journal of Teacher Education,36(2), 16-29.
Hanlon, T.E., Blatchley, R.J., Bennett-Sears, T., O’Grady, K.E., Rose, M.andCallaman, J.M. 2005.Vulnerability of children of incarcerated addict mothers: Implications for preventive intervention.Children and Youth Services Review, 27, 67- 84.
Hawley, D.R., and De Haan, L. 1996.Toward a definition of family resilience: Integrating life-span and family perspectives.Family Process, 35 (3), 283-298.
Henshaw, E.M., Howarth, H.E. 1941.Observed effects of wartime condition of children.Mental Health,2, 93-101.
Hill, H.M.andMadhere, S. 1996.Exposure to community violence and African American children: A multidimensional model of risks and resources.Journal of Community Psychology,24, 26-43.
Hissel, S., Bijleveld, C. andKruttschnitt, C. (2011)The well-being of children of incarcerated mothers. An exploratory study for the Netherlands.European Journal of Criminology,8 (5), 346-360.
Howell, K.H., Graham-Bermann, S.A., Czyz, E. and Lilly, M. 2010.Assessing Resilience in Preschool Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence.Violence and Victims,25 (2),150-164.
Huang, I.C. 1991.Family stress and coping. In Bahr, S.J. (ed.), Family research: A sixtyyear review, 1930-1990Vol. 1. Lexington, New York City, NY, 289-334.
Janson, C.-G. 2000.Project Metropolitan. In Janson, C.-G. (ed.), Seven Swedish longitudinal studies in the behavioral sciences.Forskningsradsnamuden, Stockholm, Sweden, 140-171.
Johnson, B. and Howard, S. 2007.Causal chain effects and turning points in young people’s lives: a resilience perspective.Journal of Student Wellbeing, 1 (2), 1-15.
Kandel, E., Mednick, S.A., Kirkegaard-Sorensen, L., Hutchings, B., Knop, J., Rosenberg, R. and Schulsinger, F. 1988IQ as a Protective Factor for Subjects at High Risk for Antisocial Behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56(2), 224-226.
King, D. 2002.Parents, children and prison: effects of parental imprisonment on children.Centre for Social and Educational Research, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin.
Kliewer, W., Murrelle, L., Mejia, R., Torres de G.Y.andAngold, A. 2001.Exposure to violence against a family member and internalizing symptoms in Colombian adolescents: The protective effects of family support.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,69 (6), 971-982.
Kobak, R.and Madsen, S. 2008Disruptions in attachment bonds: Implications for theory, research, and clinical Intervention. In Cassidy, J.and Shaver, P.R. (eds), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (2nd ed.).Guilford Press, New York, 23-47.
Kos, A.M. and Derviskadic-Jovanovic, S. 1998.What can we do to support children who have been through war?Forced Migration Review,3, 4-7.
Kuhnrich, B. andKania, H. 2005.Attitudes Towards Punishment in the European Union: Results from the 2005 European Crime Survey (ECSS) with Focus on Germany ECSS Project: Research ReportMPI [30/12/2005]. Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law, Freiburg/Germany.
Kuterovac-Jagodic, G. 2003.Posttraumatic stress symptoms in Croatian children exposed to war: A prospective study.Journal of Clinical Psychology,59, 9-25.
Lopez, C.andSuniti-Bhat, C. 2007.Supporting students with incarcerated parents in schools: A group intervention.The Journal of Specialists in Group Work,32(2),139-153.
Luthar, S.S. (ed.) 2003.Resilience and Vulnerability: Adaptation in the Context of Childhood Adversities.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Lynch, M. 2003.Consequences of children’s exposure to community violence.Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review,6, 265-273.
Mackintosh, V.H., Myers, B.J. and Kennon, S.S. (2006).Children of Incarcerated Mothers and Their Caregivers: Factors Affecting the Quality of Their Relationship.Journal of Child and Family Studies,15 (5), 581-596.
Macksoud, M. 1993.Helping Children Cope with the Stresses of War.United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), New York.
Mampane, R.andBouwer, C. 2011.The influence of township schools on the resilience of their learners.South African Journal of Education,31, 14-126.
Masten, A.S, andCoatsworth, J.D. 1998.The development of competence in favorable and unfavorable environments. Lessons from research on successful children.American Psychologist,53, 205-220.
Masten, A.S., Hubbard, J.J., Gest, S.D., Tellegen, A., Garmezy, N. and Ramirez, M. 1999.Competence in the context of adversity: Pathways to resilience and maladaptation from childhood to late adolescence.Development and Psychopathology, 11, (1)143-169.
Masten,A.S., and Powell, J.L. 2003.A resilience framework for research, policy, and practice. In Suniya, S. Luthar (ed.), Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of childhood adversities.Cambridge University Press, New York, 1-25.
Ministry of Justice 2012. Prisoners’ childhood and family backgrounds.Ministry of Justice.London.
Morgan, J., Leeson, C., Dillon, R.C., Needham, M. and Wirgman, A-L 2011.Support Provision in Schools for Children with a Father in Prison: A Case Study of One Local Authority in theUK. Plymouth University and Choice Consultancy Service, Plymouth.
Morris, P. 1965.Prisoners and their families.Unwin Brothers, Woking, England.
Mukhopadhyay, L. 2010.Development of resilience among school children against violence.Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences,5,455-458.
Mulready-Jones, A. 2011.Hidden Children: A study into services for Children of Incarcerated Parents in Sweden and the United States.PACT, London,1-23.
Murray, J. 2005.The effects of imprisonment on families and children of prisoners. In Liebling, A. and Maruna, S. (eds), The effects of imprisonment.Willan, Cullompton, England, 442-492.
Murray, J. 2007.The cycle of punishment: Social exclusion of prisoners and their children.Criminology and Criminal Justice, 7 (1), 55-81.
Murray, J., Farrington, D.P., Sekol, I. and Olsen, R.F. 2009. Effects of parental imprisonment on child antisocial behaviour and mental health: a systematic review.Campbell Systematic Reviews,4, 1-105.
Murray, J. and Farrington, D.P. 2008.Parental imprisonment: Long-lasting effects on boys' internalizing problems through the life-course.Development and Psychopathology,20, 273-290.
Murray, J.,Janson, C.-G. and Farrington, D.P. 2007.Crime in adult offspring of prisoners: a cross-national comparison of two longitudinal samples.Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34 (1), 133-149.
Murray, J.and Farrington, D.P. 2006.Evidence-based programs for children of prisoners.Criminology and Public Policy,5 (4), 721-736.
Murray, J. and Farrington, D.P. 2005.Parental imprisonment: Effects on boys’ antisocial behaviour and delinquency through the life-course.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46 (12), 1269-1278.
Murray, J.and Murray, L. 2010.Parental incarceration, attachment and child psychopathology.Attachment and Human Development,12(4), 289-309.
Noble, C. 1995.Prisoners’ Families: The Everyday Reality.Ormiston Children and Families Trust, Ipswich.
O'Donnell, D.A., Schwab-Stone, M.E.andMuyeed, A.Z. 2002.Family, School, and Community Multidimensional Resilience in Urban Children Exposed to Community Violence. Child Development,73 (4), 1265-1282.
Olson, D.H., Russell, C.andSprenkle, D. 1989.Circumplex Model: Systemic Assessment and Treatment of Families, 2nd edition.Haworth, New York.
Panter-Brick, C., Goodman, A., Tol, W. and Eggerman, M. 2011.Mental Health and Childhood Adversities: A Longitudinal Study in Kabul, Afghanistan. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,50 (4), 349-363.
Parke, R. and Clarke-Stewart, K.A. 2002.Effects of parental incarceration on young children.U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C.
Peart, K. and Asquith, S. 1992.Scottish Prisoners and their Families: The Impact of Imprisonment on Family Relationships.Scottish Forum on Prisons and Families, Edinburgh.
Phillips, S.D. and Dettlaff, A.J. 2009.More than Parents in Prison: The Broader Overlap Between the Criminal Justice and Child Welfare Systems.Journal of Public Child Welfare, 3, 3-22.
Poehlmann, J. 2005.Representations of Attachment Relationships in Children of Incarcerated Mothers.Child Development, 76 (3), 679-696.
Pretis, M.andDimova, A. 2008.Vulnerable children of mentally ill parents: towards evidence-based support for improving resilience.Support for Learning,23 (3), 152-159.
Prison Reform Trust 2012.Bromley Briefings Prison Factfile: June 2012.Prison Reform Trust, London, 1-77.
Pugh, G. 2004.Sentenced families: Signs of change for children with a parent in prison.Ormiston Children and Families Trust, Ipswich.
Richards, M. 1992.The separation of children and parents: Some issues and problems.In Shaw, R. (ed.), Prisoners’ children: What are the issues?Routledge, London, 3-12.
Richards, M., McWilliams, B.,Allcock,L.,Enterkin,J.,Owens,P. and Woodrow, J. 1994.TheFamily Ties of English Prisoners: The Results of the Cambridge Project on Imprisonment and Family Ties. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Richardson, G.E. 2002.The metatheory of resilience and resiliency.Journal of Clinical Psychology,58 (3), 307-321.
Rutter, M. 1985.Resilience in the face of adversity: Protective factors and resistance to psychiatric disorder.British Journal of Psychiatry,147, 598-611.
Rutter, M. 1987.Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms.American Journal of Orthopsychiatry,57, 316-331.
Rutter, M. 1990.Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. In Rolf, J.M., Masten, A.S.,Cicchetti, D., Nucherlein, K.H. and Weintraub, S. (eds), Risk and protective factors in the development of psychopathology.Cambridge University Press, NewYork, 181-214.
Rutter, M. 1999.Resilience concepts and findings: Implications for Family Therapy.Journal of Family Therapy,21, 119-144.
Rutter, M. 2000.Resilience reconsidered: Conceptual considerations, empirical findings, and policy implications.In Shonkoff, J.P.andMeisels, S.J. (eds), Handbook of early childhood intervention (2nd ed.).Cambridge University Press, New York, 651-682.
Rutter, M., Anderson-Wood, L., Beckett, C., Bredenkamp, D., Castle, J., Groothues, C.,Kreppner, J., Keaveney, L., Lord, C. and O’Connor, T.G. 1999.Quasi-autistic patterns following severe early global privation. English and Romanian Adoptees(ERA) Study Team.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines,40 (4), 537-549.
Sack, W. 1977.Children of imprisoned fathers.Psychiatry,40, 163-174.
Sack, W.H., Seidler, J. and Thomas, S. 1976.The children of imprisoned parents: A psychosocial exploration.American Journal of Orthopsychiatry,46, 163-174.
Salami, S.O. 2010.Moderating Effects of Resilience, Self-Esteem and Social Support on Adolescents’ Reactions to Violence.Asian Social Science,6 (12), 101-110.
Scharff-Smith, P., Gampell, L. 2011.Children of Imprisoned Parents. The Danish Institute for Human Rights, European Network for Children of Imprisoned Parents, University of Ulster and Bambinisenzasbarre.SCIE 2008. Children of prisoners - maintaining family ties.Children’s and Families’Services SCIE Guide 22,Social Care Institute for Excellence, London.
Shaw, R. 1992.Imprisoned fathers and the orphans of justice. Prisoners’ children: What are the issues? Shaw, R.S. (ed.).Routledge, London, 41-49.
Skinner, D. and L. Swartz. 1989.The Consequences for Preschool Children of a Parent’s Detention: A Preliminary South African Clinical Study of caregivers’reports.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,30, 243-259.
Slack, K.S.andYoo, J. 2005.Food hardships and child behavior problems among lowincome children.Social Service Review, 79, 511-536.
Smith, R., Grimshaw, R., Romeo, R. and Knapp, M. 2007.Poverty and Disadvantage among Prisoners’ Families.Centre for Crime and Justice Studies and Joseph Rowntree Foundation, London.
Ungar, M. and Brown, M. 2008.Distinguishing differences in pathways to resilience among Canadian youth.Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health,27 (1), 1-13.
Vernberg, E.M., La Greca, A.M., Silverman, W.K.andPrinstein, M. 1996.Predictors of children’s post-disaster functioning following Hurricane Andrew.Journal of Abnormal Psychology,105, 237-248.
Waaktaar, T., Christie, H.J., Borge, A.I.H.andTorgersen, S.(2004).How Can Young People’s Resilience be Enhanced? Experiences from a Clinical Intervention Project.Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry,9 (2), 167-183.
Wakefield, S. and Wildeman, C. 2011.Mass imprisonment and racial disparities in childhood behavioral problems.Criminology and Public Policy,10(3), 793-817.
Walsh, F. 1996.The concept of family resilience: Crisis and challenge. Family Process, 35(3), 261-281.
Werner, E. 1990.Protective Factors and Individual Resilience. In Meisels, S. and Shonkoff, J. (eds), Handbook of Early Childhood Intervention.Cambridge University Press, New York: Cambridge University Press, 97-116.
Werner, E.and Smith, R. 1982.Vulnerable but Invincible: A Longitudinal Study of Resilient Children and Youth.McGraw Hill, New York.
Werner, E.S. and Smith, R.S. 1992.Overcoming the odds: High risk children from birth to adulthood.Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.
Whitaker, R.,Orzol, S. and Kahn, R. 2006.Maternal mental health, substance use and domestic violence in the year after delivery and subsequent behaviour problems in children at age 3 years. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63 (5), 551-560.
Wildeman, C. 2009.Paternal incarceration, the prison boom, and the concentration of disadvantage.Demography, 46(2), 265-280.
Wilderman, C. 2010.Parental Incarceration and Children's Physically Aggressive Behaviours: Evidence from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study.Social Forces,89 (1), 285-310.
Yancey, A.K. 1998.Building positive self-image in adolescents in foster care: The use of role models in an interactive group approach.Adolescence,33, 253-268.
Yancey, A.K., Grant, D., Kurosky, S., Kravitz-Wirtz, N.andMistry, R. 2011. Role Modeling, Risk, and Resilience in California Adolescents.Journal of Adolescent Health,48, 36-43.
Zakeri, H., Jowkar, B. and Razmjoee, M. 2010.Parenting styles and resilience.Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 1067-1070.