DEMOCRATIE PARTICIPATIVE ET INCLUSION SOCIOPOLITIQUE EN FRANCE ET AU BRESIL : LES ASSISES DE LA VILLE A BOBIGNY ET LE BUDGET PARTICIPATIF A BELO HORIZONTE

Heloïse NEZ

Abstract


The way it has developed throughout the past two decades, especially as a participative budget, the participative democracy in Europe and Latin America shows that it's main objectives are political equality and social justice. The representative democracy is sustained by citizens’ direct implication mechanisms that straightly implicate citizens in the decision making process. Thus, one may expect a democratization of the public space and a good distribution of the public resources. As Blondiaux (2008, p. 109-110) affirms, "the participative democracy makes sense only if it contributes to the elimination of the social exclusion logic that describes the usual dynamics of our democracies [...]. If, contrariwise, the participative democracy resumes itself only to the continuation  of the traditional politics through other means, who would benefit from it in case it reproduces its limits  and serves only  to those who are already in power?” By making the political equality possible, participation can become a vehicle for social justice: the more the dominant individuals and groups  are given the chance to affirm themselves, the more they can express themselves and have their requests taken into consideration. What would one think if this „ideal of inclusion” (Blondiaux, 2008) would be found in the concrete experiences of participation? Would these new forms of democracy can actually open the access to the decision making process of those excluded or allow for the reproductions of the hidden sense „that requests for” the traditional mechanisms of political representation (Gaxie, 1978)? Can one think of the social results of these mechanisms in terms of the distribution of public resources? Starting with the comparison between two experiences of France and Brazil- the participative budget of Belo Horizonte, whose analyses focused on theBarreiro area and of the Assisi city in Bobigny  – this article considers the inclusive dimension of the participative democracy. The objectives of the polls done in each of the above mentioned cities in the spring of 2006 were to analyse the relationship between the political and social inclusion: can on make a connection between the access of those excluded from the traditional representative system to the decision making process and the production of social results?

Full Text:

Full Text: PDF

References


Avritzer, L., (2005) - Nouvelles sphères publiques au Brésil : démocratie locale et délibération politique, Gestion de proximité et démocratie participative, sous la direction de Marie-Hélène Bacqué et Yves Sintomer, Paris, La Découverte, p. 231-251

Avritzer, L., (2002) - Democracy and the Public Space in Latin America, Princeton, Princeton University Press

Bacqué M., H., Rey, H. et Sintomer, Y., (2005.) - Gestion de proximité et démocratie participative, Paris, La Découverte

Bacqué M., H., Rey, H. et Sintomer, Y., (1999) - L’espace public dans les quartiers populaires d’habitat social, Espace public et citoyenneté locale, sous la direction de Catherine Neveu, Paris, L’Harmattan, p. 115-148

Blondiaux, L., (2008) - Le nouvel esprit de la démocratie, Editions du Seuil et La République des idées

Blondiaux, L., (2005) - L'idée de démocratie participative. Enjeux, impensés et questions récurrentes, Gestion de proximité et démocratie participative, sous la direction de Marie-Hélène Bacqué et Yves Sintomer, La Découverte, Paris, p. 119-135

Fraser, N., (2005) - Qu’est ce que la justice sociale?, La Découverte, Paris

Gaxie, D., (1978) - Le cens caché : inégalités culturelles et ségrégation politique, Paris, Seuil

Genro, T. et Souza, U., (1988) - Quand les habitants gèrent vraiment leur ville, Paris, Charles Leopold Mayer

Granet, E., (2003) - Porto Alegre: les voix de la démocratie, Paris, Syllepse

Jesus, R., C., (2004) - Orçamento participativo e associativismo comunitário, Belo Horizonte, Newton Paiva

Marquetti, A., (2003) - “Participação e redistribuição: o Orçamento participativo em Porto Alegre”, A inovação democrática no Brasil: o orçamento participativo, sous la direction de Leonardo Avritzer et Zander Navarro, São Paulo, Cortez, p. 129-156

Milani, C., (2005) - “O "princípio participativo” na formulação de políticas públicas locais : análise comparativa de experiências européias e latino-americanas”, XXIX Encontro Anual da ANPOC

Nahas, M., I. et al (2007) - “Qualidade de vida urbana em Belo Horizonte na década de 1990: o que dizem os indicadores?”, Revista Pensar BH: Política Social, mars-mai, p. 8-17

Nahas, M., I., (2000) - O Indice de qualidade de vida urbana e a Mapa da exclusão social de Belo Horizonte, Belo Horizonte, Secretaria de modernização administrativa e informação

Nez, H., (2006) - La démocratie participative locale : un questionnement de sa dimension inclusive à partir des expériences de Bobigny (France) et Barreiro (Belo Horizonte, Brésil), Mémoire de Master Recherche « Sociétés et politiques comparées », IEP de Paris

Nylen, W., (2002) - “Testing the Empowerment Thesis : the Participatory Budget in Belo Horizonte and Betim, Brazil”, Comparative Politics, p. 127-145

Pires, R., (2003) “O Orçamento Participativo em Belo Horizonte e seus efeitos distributivos sobre a exclusão territorial”, Anais do X Encontro Nacional da ANPUR, Belo Horizonte

Putnam, R., (2000) - Bowling alone : the collapse and revival of American community, New York, Simon & Schuster

Rey, H.,(2005) - Participation électorale et démocratie participative, Gestion de proximité et démocratie participative, sous la direction de Marie-Hélène Bacqué et Yves Sintomer, Paris, La Découverte, 2005, p. 117-227

Sintomer, Y., Herzberg, C. et Röcke, A. (2008) - Les budgets participatifs en Europe : des services publics au service du public, Paris La Découverte

Wampler, B., (2003) - “Orçamento Participativo : uma explicação para as amplas variações nos resultados”, A inovação democrática no Brasil : o orçamento participativo, sous la direction de Leonardo Avritzer et Zander Navarro, São Paulo, Cortez, p. 61-86


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.