POLITICAL CULTURE AND DEMOCRATIC DEVELOPMENT IN EASTERN EUROPE
Keywords:political culture, democratic development, political apathy, social cognition, subject political subject political culture, post-communism
AbstractSubject political culture is the representative variable for explaining democratic fragility in Eastern Europe. This article aims to develop, through quantitative models, the association between cultural variables and the quality of democracy. Thus, the article proposes comparative case studies between Ukraine, the Republic of Moldova and Belarus. The main criteria of this quantitative analysis are represented by: i) the importance of politics for citizens; ii) the importance of religion in citizens` lives; iii) the political Affiliation; iv) NGO membership; iv) feeling of freedom; v) political action; vi) perception of Government; vii) confidence in Government and Parliament; viii) national identity; ix) index of material-post material culture. The empirical result demonstrates a strong association between the quality of democracy and the perception of government. In accord to this result we argue that political psychology, social mentality and the subject political subject political culture determine a cognitive framework based on authoritarianism, nostalgia of communism and incremental democratic reform. Political apathy, social anxiety and “fear of freedom” are dominant factors of the cultural background and the main vectors of political attitudes and behaviours in ex-soviet countries.
Almond, G. & Verba, S. (1996). Cultura civică, Atitudini politice şi democraţie în cinci naţiuni. Bucureşti: Editura. Du Style.
Aslund, A. (2009). How Ukraine became a market economy and democracy. Washington D.C : Peterson Institute for International Economics.
Burton M. G. ,Higley J. Elite Settlement. in Robert Cribb. Kenneth Christie, Historical Injustice and Democratic Transition in Eastern Asia and Northern Europe, Ghosts at the table of Democracy, Routledge, London & New York, 2002
Dahl Robert. Dezvoltare şi cultură democratic, Larry Diamond et al.(Eds). Cum se consolidează democraţia? Ed. Polirom, Iaşi, 2004
Fromm, E. (1998). Frica de libertate. Bucureşti: Editura Teora.
Haerpfen, C. (2002). Democracy and Enlargement in Post-Communist Europe. London: Routledge.
Houghton, P. D. (2009). Political Psychology, Situations, Individuals and Cases. London & New York: Routledge,
Inglehart Ronald. East European value systems in global perspective. Hans-Dieter Kilngemann, Dieter Fuchs, Jan Zielonka (eds.). Democracy and Political Culture in Eastern Europe, Routledge London & New York, 2006
Inglehart, R.& Welzel, Ch.(2005). Modernization, Cultural Change and Democracy. The Human Development Sequence, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jowitt, K. (1992). New World Disorder, The Leninist Extinction. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
McFarland, S. & Ageyev,V. & Abalakina-Paap, M. (1992). Authoritarianism in the Former Soviet Union. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63(6).
Moore Henrietta L.,The Problem of Culture, in David Held, Henrietta Moore (eds), Cultural Politics in a Global Age, Uncertainty, Solidarity and Innovation, Oneworld Publications, Oxford, 2007
Motyl Alexander J. Dilemas of Independence, Ukraine after Totalitarianism. The Council of Foreign Relations, New York, 1993
Mudde Cas. Racist Extremism in Central and Eastern Europe. Routledge, London & New York, 2005
Neculau Adrian. Manual de psihologiesocială. Ed. Polirom, Iaşi, 2004
NewtonKenneth, Deth Jan Wan. Foundations of comparative politics, Democracies of Modern World. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2010
Roberts Andrew. The quality of democracy in Eastern Europe. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2010.
Schedler Andreas. What is Democratic Consolidation? în Journal of Democracy, Vol. 9, No.2, Apr. 1998
World Values Survey, http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/WVSContents.jsp
Freedom Howse, https://freedomhouse.org/