When the environment and local communities whose lives directely depend on it are threatened by governmental decisions favouring the activity of specific companies, revolts and boycotts seem to be the last resort of the former ones. These communities not only struggle to block unjust and harmful decisions, but they also seek to gain support for their cause by creating and getting involved in national and global networks that can exert pressure on governments. In this respect, the Romanian environmental protests against the mining project in Roșia Montană and shale gas fracking in Pungești made no exception. By using the opportunity structure framework, this paper proves that the success of the Romanian protests has been undeniably determined by the activists’affiliation to global solidarity networks for environmental justice. Therefore, similar environmental struggles that occurred in Peru and Greece reflected in the Romanian public space, and helped the Romanian protesters to better evaluate their situation, formulate their claims and raise awareness on the global stakes of the fight for environmental justice.


enviromental justice, Romania, Greece, Peru, global solidarity


AntiGoldGreece. (2013, 24 octobre). Solidarity Message from Rosia Montana Related to Criminal Charges against People from Halkidiki. https://antigoldgr.wordpress.com/2013/10/24/solidarity-message-from-rosia-montana-related-to-criminal-charges-against-people-from-halkidiki/.

BBC. (2013, 17 février). Arsonists Attack Hellas Gold Mine in Northern Greece. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-21489779.

Beșliu, R. (2013a, 6 septembre). ‘The Arab Spring, the Turkish Summer, the Romanian Autumn’: Romanian protests as a model of peaceful demonstration. CNN. http://ireport.cnn.com/docs/DOC-1032434.

Beșliu, R. (2013b, 13 décembre). Pungești: Romania’s Battlefield against Chevron. Aljazeera. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2013/12/pungesti-romania-battlefield-against-chevron-201312117349323363.html.

Beșliu, R. (2013c, 17 octobre). Get the Frack Out of Romania!. http://ireport.cnn.com/docs/DOC-1049728.

Bryner, G. C. (2002). Assessing Claims of Environmental Justice: Conceptual Frameworks. Dans K. M. Mutz, G. C. Bryner & D. S. Kenney (Eds.), Justice and Natural Resources: Concepts Strategies, and Applications, pp. 31-56. Washington: Island Press.

Coleman, S., & Blumler, J. G. (2009). The Internet and Democratic Citizenship. Theory, Practice and Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Collins, R. (2001). Social Movements and the Focus of Emotional Attention. Dans J. Goodwin, J M. Jasper & F. Polletta (Eds.), Passionate politics: Emotions and Social Movements, pp. 27-45. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Daborowski, T., & Groszkowski, J. (2012). Shale Gas in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic and Romania: Political Context, Legal Status, Outlook. Centre for Eastern Studies, 22-26.

Edwards, B., & McCarthy, J. (2004). Ressources and Social Movement Mobilization. Dans D. Snow, S. Soule & H. Kriesi (Eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements, pp. 116-153. Oxon: Blackwell Publishing.

Euronews. (2013, 17 octobre). Romania: A Small Village’s Anti-Fracking Protest Spreads to the Capital. http://www.euronews.com/2013/10/17/romania-a-small-village-s-anti-fracking-protest-spreads-to-the-capital/.

Facebook. (2013, 20 février). Roșia Montană in UNESCO World Heritage. https://www.facebook.com/rosia.montana.in.unesco/posts/10152215711250816.

Facebook. (2014, 28 mars). Roșia Montană in UNESCO World Heritage. https://www.facebook.com/rosia.montana.in.unesco/posts/1033364140010287.

Fânfest.ro. (2014). Roșia Montană respiră solidaritate. http://www.fanfest.ro/fanfest-rosia-montana-respira-solidaritate/.

Frack Off. (2014a, 6 juin). 21th of May, International Anti Chevron Day. https://frackoffromania.wordpress.com/2014/06/06/21th-of-may-international-anti-chevron-day-bucharest/.

Frack Off. (2014b, 7 juillet.) Greenpeace Activists from 7 Countries Stage Protest at the Chevron Shale Gas Exploratory Well in Pungești. https://frackoffromania.wordpress.com/2014/07/07/greenpeace-activists-from-7-countries-stage-protest-at-the-chevron-shale-gas-exploratory-well-in-pungesti/.

Giakoumidis, N. (2013, 9 mars). Thousands of Greeks Protest Planned Canadian Gold Mine. http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/thousands-of-greeks-protest-planned-canadian-gold-mine-1.1314450.

Hellenic Mining Watch. (2013). Solidarity Message from Rosia Montana Related to Criminal Charges against People from Halkidiki. http://greekindependentnews.net/2013/10/solidarity-message-from-rosia-montana-related-to-criminal-charges-against-people-from-halkidiki/.

Hill, D. (2014, 29 juin). Peru Now Has a ‘Licence to Kill’ Environmental Protesters. The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/environment/andes-to-the-amazon/2014/jun/29/peru-licence-to-kill-environmental-protestors.

Inglehart, R. (1990). Culture Shift in Advanced Industrial Society. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Koven, P. (2015, 2 mars). Greece Revokes Eldorado Gold Corp’s Authorization for Skouries Mining Project. Financial Post. http://business.financialpost.com/news/mining/greece-revokes-eldorado-gold-corp-s-authorization-for-skouries-mining-project.

Lazarus, R. J. (1993). Pursuing ‘Environmental Justice’: The Distributional Effects of Environmental Protection. Northern University Law Review, 87 (3), 787-857.

Margarit, D. (2016). Civic Disenchantment and Political Distress. The Case of the Romanian Autumn. Eastern European Politics, 32 (1), 46-62.

Marks, G., & McAdam, D. (1999). On the Relationship of Political Opportunities to the Form of Collective Action: the Case of the European Union. Dans D. Della Porte, H. Kriesi & D. Rucht (Eds.), Social Movements in a Globalizing World, pp. 97-111. London: Macmillan.

Meyer, D. S. (1993). Protest Cycles and Political Process: American Peace Movements in the Nuclear Age. Political Research Quarterly, 46, 451-479.

Meyer, D. S., & Whittier, N. (1994). Social Movement Spillover. Social Problems, 41 (2), 277-298.

Mining Technology. (2014, 5 mars). Five of the Most Controversial Mining Projects of 2013. http://www.mining-technology.com/features/featurefive-of-the-most-controversial-mining-projects-of-2013-4186417/;

Mining Watch. (2013, 2 mai). Gold and Democracy Don’t Mix-Eldorado Gold Faces Determined Opposition in Greece. http://www.miningwatch.ca/blog/gold-and-democracy-don-t-mix-eldorado-gold-faces-determined-opposition-greece.

Occupied London. (2012, 23 octobre). An Eye Witness Testimony of the Unprecedented Police Violence in Skouries, Chalkidiki: ‘Skouries, the Greek Roșia Montană’. http://blog.occupiedlondon.org/2012/10/23/an-eye-witness-testimony-of-the-unprecedented-police-violence-in-skouries-chalkidiki-skouries-the-greek-rosia-montana/.

Odobescu, V. & Ciorniciuc, R. (2013, 27 septembre). There’s Something Rotten in Bucharest: Protests Turn Political in Romania. Global Post. http://www.globalpost. com/dispatch/news/regions/europe/130925/romania-protests-gold-minig-environmen.

Ortiz, I., Burke, S., Berrada, M., & Cortez, H. (2014). World Protests 2006-2013. Initiative for Policy Dialogue, Columbia University & Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. http://policydialogue.org/files/publications/World_Protests_2006-2013-Complete_and_Final_4282 014.pdf.

Patran, I. (2013, 4 avril). Thousands Protest Chevron’s Shale Gas Plans in Romania. Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/04/04/us-romania-shale-chevron-idUSBRE9330S3201304 04.

Paul, K. (2013, 12 octobre). When Canadian Mining Companies Take Over the World. Global Journalist. http://globaljournalist.org/2013/10/when-canadian-mining-companies-take-over-the-world/.

Peña, D. (2005). Autonomy, Equity, and Environmental Justice. Dans D. N. Pellow & R. J. Brulle (Eds.), Power, Justice, and the Environment: A Critical Appraisal to the Environmental Justice Movement, pp. 131-152. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Real Democracy Now. (2014, 26 février). Soli-Event & Party: Save Roșia Montană-Save Skouries. http://www.reden.tk/ “p=1843〈=en.

Rojas, F., & Heaney, M. (2008, 13 février). Social Movement Mobilization in a Multi-Movement Environment: Spillover, Interorganizational Networks, and Hybrid Identities. http://www.hks.harvard.edu/netgov/files/NIPS/Paper_M_Heaney.pdf.

RT. (2013, 9 décembre). Anti-Fracking Clashes in Romania as Activists Break into Chevron Site. http://rt.com/news/chevron-fracking-protest-clashes-884/.

RT. (2014, 22 mai). Global Anti-Chevron Day: Environmental Activists Stage Protests Worldwide. http://rt.com/news/160652-anti-chevron-global-protest/.

Salvemos Cabana. (2013, 23 décembre). Roșia Montană, Skouries and Corcoesto Mining Conflict Reacg Castilla y Leon next January 4th. http://www.salvemoscabana.blogspot.com.es /2013/12/rosia-montana-skouries-and-corcoesto.html.

Schlosberg, D. (2007). Defining Environmental Justice. Theories, Movements, and Nature. New York: Oxford University Press.

Steger, T. & Milicevic, M. (2014). One Global Movement, Many Local Voices: Discourse(s) of the Global Anti-Fracking Movement. Dans L. Leonard & S. B. Kedzior (Eds.), Occupy the Earth: Global Environmental Movements, pp. 1-36. Wagon Lane: Emerald.

Stoica, C. A. (2013, 11 décembre). Opinia Publică despre Proiectul Roșia Montană și gazele de șist. VoxPublica. http://voxpublica.realitatea.net/politica-societate/opinia-publica-despre-proie ctul-rosia-montana-si-gazele-de-sist-101065.html.

Taylor, D. E. (2000). The Rise of the Environmental Justice Paradigm: Injustice Framing and the Social Construction of Environmental Discourses. American Behavioral Scientist, 43 (4), 508-580.

The Economist. (2005, 3 février). Halting the Rush against Gold. http://www.economist.com/node/3627092.

The Globe and Mail. (2013, 29 avril). Eldorado Gold’s Big Greek Mining Problem. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/international-business/european-business/eldorado-golds-big-greek-mining-problem/article11584840/ “page=all.

The Guardian. (2012, 5 juillet). Peru anti-mining protests escalate during state of emergency. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/jul/05/peru-anti-mining-protests-escalate.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2015, 22 avril). What Is Environmental Justice? http://www.epa.gov/environmentaljustice/.

Vesalon, L., & Crețan, R. (2015). ‘We Are not the Wild West’: Anti-Fracking Protests in Romania. Environmental Politics, 24 (2), 288-307.

Zelist Monitor. (2013, 10 octobre). OpenPit, documentarul care arată dezastrul cianurii folosite dans Peru, a devenit viral. http://www.zelist.ro/blog/open-pit-documentarul-care-arata-dezastrele-cianurii-folosite-in-peru-a-devenit-viral/.


  • There are currently no refbacks.